Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 5, sloka 18, part 1

Newsletter on Bhagavadgita by Dr. P.V. Nath

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*** HAPPY DIWALI ***

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Sloka 18

VIDYA VINAYA SAMPANNE BRAHMANE’ GAVI HASTINI
SHUNI CHAIVA SHWAPAKE’ PANDITAHA SAMADARSHINAHA.

The sage look with equal eye on a Brahmana endowed with knowledge and humility,
a cow, an elephant, a dog and an outcaste who feeds on dog’s flesh.

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The sage referred to in this sloka is the seeker who has put into practice the
essence of the last verse and he is recognised as a true pandita. The doctrine
of “Universal love” is the hallmark of Gita and stressed in this verse. It is
not only the doctrine of brotherhood of man but love and compassion to all forms
of life.

We learnt from the last sloka that the seekers by such practice would succeed in
dispelling their sins by acquiring knowledge. The highest knowledge to be learnt
is “Samatvam”. “Equal vision” is “Samatvam.” It is seeing the same “Atman” in
all. It is the true knowledge and he who puts into practice this philosophy is a
pandita.

*** will be continued ***

Copyright for the texts on Bhagavad Gita by Dr. P.V. Nath, UK.
Questions concerning the text please direct to Dr. Nath
at “snath@btinternet.com“.
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Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 5, sloka 17, part 2

Newsletter on Bhagavadgita by Dr. P.V. Nath

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Sloka 17

TADBUDDHAYAS TADATMA TANNISHTA TATPARAYANAHA
GACHYANTYA PUNARAVRTTIM JNANA NIRDHOOSHA KALMASHAHA.

Intellect absorbed in “That”, Self being “That”, established in “That”, “That”
being the supreme goal, they go whence there is no return, their sins dispelled
by knowledge.

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*** continued from last week ***

Tat Parayanaha: That being the Supreme goal.

This refers to the practice of “Meditation”.
The sastras advice that “God realisation” should be the goal in life. “God
realisation” means realising the presence of God in all and respecting the God
in all.

Gachyanti Apanaravruttim: They go whence there is no return.

In the material world we live in, absorbed in acquiring material gains we spend
our time fulfilling our wishes and dreams. We have examples of businessmen,
industrialists, politicians who have succeeded in their efforts by being totally
absorbed in that and established in that objective. The success gained in the
material world is related to time, space and causation. The happiness of
achieving this success is not permanent.

On the contrary, the “Peace, Bliss” experienced on uniting with the Parabrahman
is the end of spiritual journey. It is union with the “Supreme”. When there are
no more vasanas stored in the mind and the mind does not register any new
vasanas it is said to be the ideal condition to merge with Brahman.

This can happen only when their sins are dispelled by knowledge. The “sins”
referred to here are the “vasanas.” Clearing the stored vasanas in the mind and
not letting new vasanas get registered in the mind comes from “Knowledge”.
Highest knowledge the sastras would like us to develop is understanding the
Mahavakya “Tat Tvam Asi.”

Let us all stop in our path for a moment,
contemplate on what progress we have made and on our future actions in relation
to the goal of life,
make a critical self-analysis of our actions in relation to our life,
and we are sure to succeed and experience “Sat Chit Ananda.”

This takes us on beautifully to the next sloka, which is:

Sloka 18

VIDYA VINAYA SAMPANNE BRAHMANE’ GAVI HASTINI
SHUNI CHAIVA SHWAPAKE’ PANDITAHA SAMADARSHINAHA.

The sage look with equal eye on a Brahmana endowed with knowledge and humility,
a cow, an elephant, a dog and an outcaste who feeds on dog’s flesh.

*** commentary follows next week ***

Copyright for the texts on Bhagavad Gita by Dr. P.V. Nath, UK.
Questions concerning the text please direct to Dr. Nath
at “snath@btinternet.com“.
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Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 5, sloka 17, part 1

Newsletter on Bhagavadgita by Dr. P.V. Nath

@@@ http://www.TheGita.org/Downloads/News_10_42.pdf @@@

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Sloka 17

TADBUDDHAYAS TADATMA TANNISHTA TATPARAYANAHA
GACHYANTYA PUNARAVRTTIM JNANA NIRDHOOSHA KALMASHAHA.

Intellect absorbed in “That”, Self being “That”, established in “That”, “That”
being the supreme goal, they go whence there is no return, their sins dispelled
by knowledge.

#################

Tad Buddhaya: buddhi/intellect absorbed in “That.”:

Intelligence/intellect is the God’s gift and privilege to the mankind. It is
important that we learn the art of making proper use of this special gift. For
what good we may have done in the past, we are blessed with the birth as humans.
We have to climb up from the plane of “stone man to animal man,” from “animal
man to man man”, from “man man to God man”. This is possible when our intellect
is totally absorbed in “That.” The role of the intellect in our body is
“Reasoning capacity.”

The reasoning capacity can be either good or bad. If it is bad it is due to the
ego/ahamkara and it is then known as “Durbuddhi”. Selfishness predominates in
all the reasoning tasks.

If it is good, it relates to the Atman within in all its reasoning tasks. It
will then take the individual on towards the upward path in spiritual progress.
Such buddhi which has no ego in it is “Subuddhi.” “Intellect absorbed in That”
refers to “Subuddhi.”

It does not mean that we forget our role in the society. Every act we conduct
has to be in the spirit of “Working for our Master.” We should continue to
discharge our duties to repay the debt to the society and at the same time be
humble servants of the Divine Master. “Intellect absorbed in That” implies
remembering this advice from the spiritual masters.

“Tad Atmanaha”: their self being That:

This refers to the “Mind.” It is not the Atman but “Jivatma”. The Jivatma is the
Atman that has developed contact with the outer world and forgotten its true
identity. “Tadatmanaha” means the mind has to remember its connection to the
Atman, ever pure and in constant bliss. Keeping in memory the true identity of
oneself is “Tadatmanaha.” It simply means that one should not have the “Ego” in
their thoughts, actions and speech.

“Tan Nishtaha”: established in That:

It refers to the state of the mind in relation to the impulses received from the
sense organs. Despite receiving the various impulses from the world around, the
mind should never forget the union with the Atman within.

The search light from the mind focussed externally through the sense organs
should be directed towards the Atman within and,
The mind at the same time must remember that it should be under the control of
the intellect.
Meeting these two conditions is “Tan Nishtaha.”

*** will be continued ***

Copyright for the texts on Bhagavad Gita by Dr. P.V. Nath, UK.
Questions concerning the text please direct to Dr.
Nath at “snath@btinternet.com“.
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Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 5, sloka 16, part 2

Newsletter on Bhagavadgita by Dr. P.V. Nath

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Sloka 16

JNANENA TU TAD AJNANAM ESHAM NASHITAM ATMANAHA
TESHAAM ADITYAVAY AJNANAM PRAKASHAYATI TAT PARAM

But to those whose ignorance is destroyed by the knowledge of the Atman, shining
like the sun, reveals the supreme to them.

################

*** continued from last week ***

The second half of this sloka gives the beautiful example of the sun and the
clouds.

The sun is ever shining in the sky during the day time. Many a times, he is not
seen because of the dark clouds in the sky blocking him. Even a small cloud can
block the view of the sun. It does not mean the sun is not there but it only
means that the cloud blocks the sun and benefit of sun is not obtained because
of the cloud.

As soon as the cloud moves away, the sun shines forth in his brilliance. It was
not that the sun was not there. But, he was hidden by the dark clouds.

The sun did not have to move away but the clouds had to disperse.

The sun is to be looked upon as the example of the “Atman”,
The clouds as the “Ignorance.”
The sun, self luminous will shine forth and the,
Atman, self luminous shines forth.

Let us look at the idol of the Lord in a temple in the inner sanctorum. The
tradition is that the inner sanctorum is a dark room with the statue of the Lord
within. Lamps are placed on either side of the idol. As soon as the lamps are
lit, the idol shines forth.

This is not the perfect example.

The best example is that of an article made up of radium. Radium as we know is
“self-luminous.” In a dark room if this article is placed with some item of
cloth covering it, the article is not seen. The owner will keep on searching for
this article.

As soon as he removes the cloth over the article, even in the dark room, the
article shines forth because of its self-luminous property.

“The Atman” within is self-luminous. It is covered by ignorance known as “Ego”.
When we remove the mask of ego, the Atman shine forth in its full brilliance.

“Be still and know that I am God” says the Bible.
The important word is “be still”. It means “do not move.”
It is not physical movement it refers to.
It is the feeling of “I move” with the “I-ness” predominant in it.
The body, mind and the senses have to do their worldly duties without the sense
of ego.
This is the perfect state of “Total, Intense meditation.”
In this state, we can see the God within and all round.

Copyright for the texts on Bhagavad Gita by Dr. P.V. Nath, UK.
Questions concerning the text please direct to Dr.
Nath at “snath@btinternet.com“.
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Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 5, sloka 16, part 1

Newsletter on Bhagavadgita by Dr. P.V. Nath

 

 

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Sloka 16

JNANENA TU TAD AJNANAM ESHAM NASHITAM ATMANAHA
TESHAAM ADITYAVAY AJNANAM PRAKASHAYATI TAT PARAM

But to those whose ignorance is destroyed by the knowledge of the Atman, shining
like the sun, reveals the supreme to them.

==============================================================

The journey of life is mixed with happiness and sorrow. It is common for all.
But what brings happiness or sorrow differs markedly from individual to
individual.

We give more importance to happiness and in that we almost forget the Lord who
blessed us with the experience of happiness. Whereas when we are in sorrow, we
start asking questions like "why"? "Why did I have to suffer"? "Why was God so
cruel to me"? And similar questions crop up in our minds.

In the last sloka we understood that "Knowledge is covered by ignorance."
In this sloka we are given the means to clear the ignorance.
"Ignorance has to be cleared by the knowledge of the Atman" is the simplest
answer from the Lord for all mankind irrespective of wealth, caste, sex, creed,
religion etc.

Where is this "Atman"?

Some of my friends from the state of Kerala tell me of a beautiful tradition
they follow in their region which brings out the awareness that "The Atman is
within all of us."

On the day of their "New Year", the tradition is:
The members of household or friends ask the question:
"Do you want to see God"?
When the answer is affirmative, the individual is asked to close his eyes and is
led into a room. Inside the room he is asked to open the eyes. He is made to sit
on a chair facing a mirror.

As soon as he opens his eyes, he will see his own reflection.
This symbolises the fact the Lord is within you and opening your eye of
knowledge you can see the Atman within.

*** will be continued ***

Copyright for the texts on Bhagavad Gita by Dr. P.V. Nath, UK.
Questions concerning the text please direct to Dr. Nath
at “snath@btinternet.com“.
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Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 5, sloka 15

Newsletter on Bhagavadgita by Dr. P.V. Nath

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Sloka 15

NAADATTE’ KASCHIT PAPAM NA CHAIVA SUKRUTAM VIBHUHU
AJNANENAVRUTAM JNANAM TENA MUHYANTI JANTAVAHA

The Lord does not receive either the bad or the good of any one. Knowledge is
enveloped by ignorance and by it beings are deluded.

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Having said that each individual acts on his own and the Lord is just a neutral
witness, we now get another firm assertion from Him that He does not receive the
good or bad from the actions of any individual.

It is a simple statement of fact that good actions result in good results and
bad actions result in bad results. We get the results of all the actions
conducted by us. The Lord does not receive the results of any actions.

What is then “The knowledge” that is enveloped by ignorance?

The knowledge we should remember is that each one of us is truly “The Atman”
within which is part of Parabrahman. Each one of us is “Tat”, so says the
Mahavakya from Chandogya Upanisad, Sama Veda,”Tat Tvam Asi.” (Thou Art That.)

There are three aspects of “Ignorance” that hides this “Knowledge” and these
are:

a) We carry forward results of a number of actions in our past including the
past births. We did not get the results during that birth. The timing of
receiving the results is “In His hands.” The ignorance is that we do not
remember this truth.

In the past births of ours, each one of us has done both good and bad actions.
The Lord does bestow the results of actions is also something that has been
drilled into us by the sastras.

Physical death in any one birth does not mean the end of all vasanas stored in
the mind. We have to get the results of thoughts and actions in that birth and
that of the past births too. The results will be given to us either in this
present birth or later in the subsequent births we may have to take.

b) Whatever actions we conduct in this life should also bear fruits and these
may be sweet fruits or bitter fruits as the case may be.

Some fruits we taste in this life but many are yet to ripen and we do not know
when they will ripen. We have even forgotten that we have sown the seeds for
these fruits by our actions. Not only we have forgotten the past but we do not
realise that our actions now will give us the fruits at a later date and we have
to taste them. The ignorance is that we do not know this truth also.

c) Finally, the ignorance is that we have forgotten our true identity with the
“Atman”.

The absence of knowledge of these three aspects of our life is “Ignorance”. This
is referred to in the sloka with the statement “Knowledge is enveloped by
ignorance and by it beings are deluded.”

The “Ignorance” is referred to as “non-apprehension” of reality which in
Sanskrit is “Avarana”. This leads to “mis-apprehension” of Reality which in
Sanskrit is “Vikshepa.”

Let us realise that the God does not sit on a high pedestal in a remote part of
the universe and blesses the jivas with vanquishing of all the vasanas at the
time of death.

(refer to sloka 38, chapter 3: the fire is enveloped by smoke, the mirror is
covered by dust and the foetus is enveloped by amnion).

Copyright for the texts on Bhagavad Gita by Dr. P.V. Nath, UK.
Questions concerning the text please direct to Dr. Nath
at “snath@btinternet.com“.
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Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 5, sloka 14

Newsletter on Bhagavadgita by Dr. P.V. Nath

@@@ http://www.TheGita.org/Downloads/News_10_37.pdf @@@

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Sloka 14

NA KARTRUTVAM NA KARMANI LOKASYA PRABHUHU
NA KARMAPHALA SAMYOGA SVABHAVASTU PRAVARTATE.

The Lord does not create agencies, nor action, nor union with the fruits of
action. But nature leads to action.

#################

It is the opinion of many that as God is within every individual, whatever the
man does it is done by the God and God made him do it. The funny part of it is
that when good things happen he gives the credit to himself and when bad happens
he puts the blame on the God. When Mr. X goes and murders somebody they tend to
say that God inside him made him do that and Mr. X cannot be held responsible
for such an act.

This sloka is to clear that misapprehension. There is only one reality. We
either misapprehend it or non-apprehend it. Non apprehension is due to ignorance
and mis-apprehension is due to ego.

Na kartrutvam: no agency. The feeling of “I” did it is “Kartrutva bhavana”. It
is a mental attitude. It is due to the ego. The God did not create such agency
and it is the individual who creates such a feeling within himself.

Na karamani: no actions. Each one of us conducts a variety of actions. Some are
good, some are bad and some indifferent. The Lord did not make us do any of such
actions.

Na karma phala samyoga: no union with the fruits of actions. Whatever action is
conducted, it will have its own results albeit good or bad. Again the God did
not bring the union with the results. God gave it to me and it is all mine
should not be the attitude to the benefits from actions. When the results are
bad, many are of the opinion that God gave the bad results.

All the three notions are wrong, the Lord says.

We should remember that “He” is only a witness to the actions and acting as a
judge only. The judge may send a person to life imprisonment but he did not make
the person get the life imprisonment. There is a great deal of difference
between the two views.

The word used is that he is “Lokasya Prabhuhu”: he is the Lord of this world and
as such has taken the role of a judge to the actions conducted by men and women.
Not that He is sitting on a high throne and passing his judgement but he is a
witness to all actions by being the Atman within and passes his judgement
accordingly.

Another meaning for the word “Loka” used here has to be analysed too. In
Sanskrit “Loka” means the world created by each individual mind. The
mental/intellectual analysis of the impulses received by the sense organs makes
each individual create his own world. The loka we live is and what we call as
“world” is the consensus of majority agreement of men/women with the impulses
received and analysed. In this sense, what created our loka will be the ego and
not the Lord.

Na Srujati: does not create. “I did not create any of these three” is the
definite statement from the Lord.

But what makes us conduct our actions?
“Swabhavastu Pravartate” is the answer.
It means “but nature leads to actions.”

What is “Nature?”
It is not the nature which is the world around us. The word “Nature” is used in
the context of the way each one of us act.
Our actions as we have discussed several times in detail before is due to the
thought imprints settling as vasanas in our mind.
What we take from the world around, how our mind reacts to the same, how and in
what form it is stored in our mind, how we open up the stored vasanas, the sum
total of these makes our “Nature.”

If we act at the mental level and let the stored vasanas of desires/hatreds
shine out our actions will be rajasic or tamasic.
On the other hand if we act at the intellectual level, think of our thoughts and
actions, analyse whether they are right or wrong, not just for us but for our
loved ones and the society and then conduct our actions, we will be assisting
ourselves in clearing the stored vasanas and our actions will be Satvic.
Finally, if we can use of the consciousness within by letting the light of
divine knowledge shine forth, our actions will be divine and we are said to be
on the path of “Union with the Supreme” and we would be able to experience the
“Eternal Bliss.”

Copyright for the texts on Bhagavad Gita by Dr. P.V. Nath, UK.
Questions concerning the text please direct to Dr. Nath
at “snath@btinternet.com“.
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Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 5, sloka 13, part 2

Newsletter on Bhagavadgita by Dr. P.V. Nath

@@@ http://www.TheGita.org/Downloads/News_10_36.pdf @@@

*** Greetings to all on behalf of Ganesh Chaturthi today.

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Sloka 13

SARVA KARMANI MANASA SANYASTASTE’ SUKHAM VASHEE
NAVADWARE’ PURE’ DEHI NAIVA KURVAN NA KARAYAN.

Mentally renouncing all actions and self-controlled, the embodied rests happily
in the nine-gated city neither acting nor causing others to act.

#################

*** continuation from last week ***

Nava Dware Pure’: Nine gated city.
It is a beautiful example our scriptures like to put forward to the seekers.
The physical body is compared to a city of nine gates.

In the olden days many parts of the world were ruled by emperors, kings and the
like. Their head quarter was a big city. That city had many gates and for
discussion purpose they say it had nine gates. The gates had two purposes:

To keep a firm control over the traffic that would like to come in from outside
(only let in what was needed and not to let in that is not required or that is
dangerous. Not to let in those who might harm the residents or who would be
spies/warriors in disguise to dethrone the king,)

AND
to let the residents go out as needed. (To bring in essential requirements, for
pilgrimage etc.)

One can say it is like the customs clearance and security check at the ports of
entry in any country.

The security to the king was dependant on making sure that no enemy comes in. As
we know the cunning enemy slowly takes over the control and eventually dethrones
the king.

What are the nine gates in our body?
2 eyes, 2 ears, 2 nostrils, one mouth, anus and urethra.

Whatever comes in the body has to come through these nine gates. If we can
control what comes in and out of these nine gates, we are said to help in
keeping our body healthy and this in turn brings in peace.

If our mind learns to keep a control over itself and not get excited or develops
hatred to what reaches it from the nine gates, it will experience the peace.

The enemy we are talking about in this instance is “The Ego”. The ego gets more
powerful with every success and soon the individual forgets the Atman within.

Finally, the last quarter of this sloka:

Naiva kurvan na karayan: Neither acting nor causing others to act. (the embodied
rests happily)

This is to reiterate the fact that the Atman is only a witness to all the bodily
actions, emotional feelings and mental thoughts. Each one of us are given the
freedom to think and act and learn from own experiences in life. We have to go
through the samsara which is a series of cycles of births and deaths.

In the example we have taken, all the residents of the city need to carry out
their daily activities that ensure peace for themselves, their country and
prosperity for the society. The monarch remains as a witness without personally
interfering in the life of majority.

In relation to the Atman, it is the nearest example we can give but not totally
similar to the life of the monarch.

He who constantly remembers the Atman within and acts as the servant of the
divine will experience constant peace. On the contrary he who forgets the Atman
within and lives for personal pleasures will experience the transitory nature of
pleasures and does not experience “Peace.”

Copyright for the texts on Bhagavad Gita by Dr. P.V. Nath, UK.
Questions concerning the text please direct to Dr. Nath
at “snath@btinternet.com“.
Find out more at www.GitaGlobal.com
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Bhagavad Gita – Chapter 5, sloka 13, part 1

Newsletter on Bhagavadgita by Dr. P.V. Nath

@@@ http://www.TheGita.org/Downloads/News_10_35.pdf @@@

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Sloka 13

SARVA KARMANI MANASA SANYASTASTE’ SUKHAM VASHEE
NAVADWARE’ PURE’ DEHI NAIVA KURVAN NA KARAYAN.

Mentally renouncing all actions and self-controlled, the embodied rests happily
in the nine-gated city neither acting nor causing others to act.

#################

This sloka refers to two beings.
The embodied (Dehee) and the Jiva.
What is the embodied doing and what should the jiva do is explained in here.
The jiva is conducting actions pertained to the life on earth and the embodied
remains as a witness for the actions of the jiva.

Sarva karmani: all actions
Manasa sanyasaste: mentally renouncing
It means that all actions that are to be performed should be carried out without
the sense of “I” ness in them.
It applies to both the voluntary and involuntary actions.

As a matter of fact the involuntary actions like breathing, circulation,
digestion etc do not have any sense of “ego”. All of us live peacefully in
relation to such actions. Technically speaking, those involuntary actions carry
on by themselves. We do not say “I am breathing”, “my heart is beating” etc.

But on the contrary we have a great sense of ego in most of our voluntary
actions.
We are told that just like we conduct involuntary actions for the maintenance of
our body, we should learn the art of performing all voluntary actions.

No one can shut himself in totally from the world outside. There should be
contact with the world. There is a lot to learn from nature and from the life
around. For this we need the senses, the mind and the sense organs. What we need
to know is how to make use of them and how to keep them in check.

Vashee: This is the most important word we have to understand in this verse. It
means “self-controlled.” The jiva/individual must learn the art of self-control.

What should be controlled is the next question one may ask.
We have two basic instruments:
The senses that bring in the impulses
And
The mind that analyses the impulses, stores them and dwells on them at its own
discretion and uses the organs of actions to fulfil its needs.
We have to control both the senses and the mind. By controlling the mind we
should be able to control the organs of action.
Unless we learn to control these two perfectly we will not experience the
“Peace.”

*** will be continued ***

Copyright for the texts on Bhagavad Gita by Dr. P.V. Nath, UK.
Questions concerning the text please direct to Dr. Nath
at “snath@btinternet.com“.
Find out more at www.GitaGlobal.com
Follow us on Twitter: www.twitter.com/GitaGlobal or
Follow us on Posterous: http://gitaglobal.posterous.com
Posted via email from International Gita Foundation Trust

Posted via email from International Gita Foundation Trust